Audio File Formats for Podcasters

Now that your podcast has been recorded and mixed, it’s time to print the file, which format do you choose? There are many formats to choose from including: MP3, WAV, FLAC, and more. Which file format you bounce down to will depend on what you plan on doing with the file, or where you are going to host the recording. And each file format will have different levels of quality, so if possible, choose the highest bit depth and sample rate appropriate for the venue.

WAV (Waveform Audio File) – Wav files are CD quality and should be used when creating any physical reproduction of the recording, i.e. CDs, vinyl, cassettes, etc. They should also be used when passing files back and forth for mixing, or when working with a composer to add music to the production. For passing files back and forth use 41k 32bit (or higher) files, and for CD or reproduction use 41k 16bit files. 

MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) – MP3 is a form of compression and will take up much less space when bounced down. For this reason it is the preferred format for most podcast hosting services. MP3s have a variety of possible export settings ranging from 320k to 8k. 

FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec ) – FLAC is similar to MP3 but can reduce the file size up to 70%. It is an ideal file type for longer recordings, but make sure to check that where you are hosting your file accepts FLACs. 

AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format)AIFF files are generally associated with Mac computer programs and can be used when passing files back and forth during production but will not be accepted by most hosting platforms. Be sure to convert these files to WAV, MP3, or FLAC before uploading to your hosting service. 

Platforms and which files they will accept: 

Bandcamp – Bandcamp will allow you to host MP3s, WAVs, and FLAC. When possible, always use the highest quality file, so a WAV is preferable. Bandcamp lets you upload audio files of up to 291MB (if you’ve sold over $20 worth of files they will raise this to 600MB), so if you have a particularly large file you’ll want to convert it to a FLAC. 

Podomatic and other hosting services – Podomatic will automatically squash your MP3 files into 192k, always make sure to upload at this bitrate, anything higher will just eat up your storage space and be further compressed. This will be the case for most hosting sites, but make sure to always upload the highest quality file that they will accept without automatically changing the bitrate.

Radio4All – Will allow you to host MP3 files of up to 320k but will also accept lower bitrate files, and there are no restrictions on storage.

Youtube – Youtube, Vimeo, and other video platforms will not allow you to upload audio files, so you will have to marry the audio file with an image or video and export the combination as an MP4, MOV, AVI, WMV, or other accepted video files. These files will take up much more space on your computer, so you will want to store them on a backup hard drive if you plan to keep them for later use. 

Metadata and Naming files correctly:

When exporting your finished file from your DAW you will be given the option of entering the metadata, this is an important step and should not be skipped. If you are producing a podcast, or any type of series, you will want to make sure that your metadata is consistent because this info will show up in iTunes, or wherever your listener is storing and listening to the files. It is worth having a master spreadsheet to keep track of how you are entering this info because even the slightest variation will cause the file to show up as a different artist or album. The following items are information you will want to include: name of the show, episode title, track # (if relevant), release date, website URL, and anything else you’ll want the listener to know. Also be sure to put the bitrate in the name of the file if you are exporting multiple files of different qualities, as this will help you differentiate which file is which without having to look at the properties.  


Time Manipulation in Audio Fiction

Working with audio is a linear time-based artform. When listening one must experience a linear flow of time that moves from start to finish, much different from the non-time-based arts such as painting, where the eye can choose how it moves through the perceived space. While audio may be constricted to this particular perception of time, how the passage of time is perceived can be altered in subtle ways that enhance the listener’s experience.

Time is malleable, or at least our perception of time is. When producing audio, one need not work linearly, it is possible to step record, program MIDI out of sequence etc., hence our use of the term realtime when recording the actual time during which a process or event occurs, such as recording someone speaking. We don’t have to produce in linear time, but ultimately the end result must be experienced in a linear fashion. That being said, it is still possible to alter the listeners perception of the flow of time.

Listening to a recording of spoken voices is a different experience than listening to a conversation taking place in front of you. The average American English speaker tends to speak at about 150 words per minute. This speed is also typical of audiobook recordings, but if you plan on including music and sound effects the reading should be slowed down. Music has a tendency to fill in the “gaps” between words and will alter the listeners perception of the speed of the reading. For this reason, it is worth slowing down when reading, giving the listener space to digest the words and in the case of multiple voice actors, allowing an extra fraction of a second between speakers. This will help to differentiate the dialog and let the listener understand the text without missing the content, along with making clean edits easier.

Likewise with music, the speed of the rhythms will alter the listeners perspective about how fast the recording actually is. Music with transients (such as a snare hit) can also distract from the legibility of the spoken word, so should be used with a light touch. Full spectrum instruments, such as synthesizers, occupy more of the audible range at high energies and will tend to increase the perception of the spoken word moving faster. For the latter it is recommended to shave off a few decibels under 20hz to prevent bass masking and the buildup of frequencies that can interfere with (and make feel faster) the spoken word.

While music can greatly alter the perception of the flow of time, there are also many fun tricks for actually manipulating the flow of time, some with standard audio effects, others through the use of psychoacoustic effects such as Risset’s rhythmic effect (a layering of rhythms that results in the apparent endless increase in tempo).

One example of a time-based audio effect is reverb. Reverberation deals with both time and space in that the addition of “reflections” gives the impression of the sound taking place in a particular environment. The larger the space, the longer it takes for the reflection to return to the listener, so not only does an effect like reverb add environment but when using it you are also altering the time-based elements of the sound. In audio, time and space are intimately related and altering one can often alter the perception of the other. The Doppler effect is a perfect example of how time and space are interrelated to the perception of sound. Reverb can also give the impression that the sound is taking place in a fictitious “past” and is often used during flashback scenes to differentiate the apparent location in time. This can also be done using the “telephone effect” by rolling off both the high and low end of the spectrum using your equalizer.

Pitch shifting and time stretching can also be used to manipulate the flow of time. Let’s say that the characters in the story enter a time machine, or portal – stretching or compressing (with the time stretcher, not a compressor which deals with dynamics) their dialog can give the impression that their flow of time has altered. This technique should be used lightly as it can quickly make the spoken word unintelligible. Reversing the audio can also give the impression of time flowing backwards but by nature will make the speaking unintelligible as it will actually be playing backwards.

Looping, delay, and echo can also be useful effects in that repetition can be a form of time manipulation. When a sound is looped it will repeat endlessly, however our perception of the sound will still change over time. Echo and delay can also emulate spatial environments that in turn can affect the perception of the flow of time within a given space.


Field Recording for Podcast Sound Design

In addition to sound effects and foley, field recordings can be a wonderful way to enhance the sound design of your podcast. As implied by the name, field recording is recording out in the field, the capture of auditory environments both natural and urban and everything in-between. Portable field recording devices are fairly inexpensive, light weight, battery powered, and with an SD card can capture hours of audio. In addition to your sound effects library, a collection of original field recordings will come in useful when creating the sound design for your podcast, film, or other audio endeavors. 

Listening on Location

Just about any location can provide interesting field recordings. As you visit different places make a point of actively listening to your surroundings, you will find that every environment has its own unique soundscape, each with its own flavor, and potentially useful when creating your sound design. Record them all and make sure to slate each recording. This means to denote information verbally in the beginning of each recording, such as location, time, take number, etc., which will help to ensure that you don’t get the recordings mixed up and will greatly help to organize your library of recordings as it grows. Try recording environments from different vantage points, get above or below the subject when possible, and maximize your session by zeroing in on different aspects of the environment. Not every recording will come out sounding good, and background noise can interfere with capturing many subjects, so experiment freely and record more material than you think you will need. It is always better to capture more material then to miss something or arrive back in the studio realizing that the recording did not come out.

Gear & Set Up 

Recording in the field can at times be unpredictable and for this reason it is worth having a gear checklist and gear pack to help with unforeseen circumstances. Wind can be a major problem when working in the field and for this reason, aside from your field recorder, a windscreen muff, blimp (or both) is your second most valuable piece of equipment. Other items to have in your pack and on the checklist are: extra batteries, extra memory cards, tripod or mic stand, headphones, moving blanket (to serve as a baffle or wind block), roll of tape, poster putty, and when necessary a sand bag. Ideally your kit should be able to fit in a backpack and keep in mind that you will probably be moving around a lot and won’t want to be carrying too much weight. Always record in stereo, as the movement of sounds in the environment can often be the most interesting aspects of the recording and will give your recording a dynamic sense of space. The recording can always be made mono later if necessary. 

Other interesting possibilities for your kit can be the inclusion of a contact microphone and a hydrophone. Contact microphones can be adhered to most surfaces and will capture the way sounds interact with the material that it is in contact with, amplifying often unheard sounds. Hydrophones can be submerged in water and capture sounds that travel much differently in a liquid medium.

Problems and Issues

The unpredictability of working in the field can provide some interesting recordings but also comes with a slew of problems that can make capturing a quality recordings difficult. As previously mentioned, wind can be an issue, and high winds can make recording impossible, so use your muff and blimp at all times. Noise pollution in general will affect most outdoor recordings, but can also be captured as a soundscape itself. Sometimes you will need to revisit the location at different times to avoid an excess of background sounds. Avoiding copyrighted sounds such as music, people’s voices, and brands is essential but can be tricky as these sounds often dominate the environment. Recording early in the morning, or late at night can aid in avoiding these interferences. 

Creative Processing 

Once back in the studio, name your files according to the slates. Your field recordings can be used in their entirety, trimmed, or mined for samples for your sound effects library. Experiment with layering environments, applying effects plugins, and filtering out different frequency ranges. The recordings can be used as is or drastically altered, have fun playing around with the soundscapes and let your creativity be as boundless as the soundscapes that surround us. 


Building a Sound Effects Library

Sound effects can be a great way to add life and intrigue to your podcast, particularly if you are producing a fiction podcast. Sound effects give the imagination cues to visualize what is happening, give the recording a sense of place, and give the production a “real” feel. In the days of radio, in-house Foley artists would create the sound design and effects live in studio alongside the voice actors. Today, for the most part, sound effects libraries are used. You can get CDs filled with royalty free sound effects, and there are many sample libraries available online, both free and behind paywalls. While there is nothing wrong with using these libraries and they contain many wonderful sounds, creating your own original sound effects library can be a lot of fun and will make your production standout by having sounds that can’t be heard on other podcasts. And as an added bonus, you can also sell them through royalty free services to make a few extra bucks, if you don’t mind others using your sounds as well.

Equipment

Chances are that if you are podcasting you already have a means of recording. If you do not, you can use your phone to record sound effects, although these will probably not be of professional quality. For around a hundred dollars you can get yourself a good field recorder, and this will be enough to get the job done. Tascam and Zoom both have great affordable options. Make sure when recording that you are using the highest quality settings

The Creative and the Mundane 

Almost every object makes a sound, either on its own, or when agitated, and many, if not all, of these sounds can be useful. Your kitchen and garage can be treasure troves of sounds and sound producing materials. While it is tempting to try and capture the most exotic sounds available (and you should), it is also worth turning the creativity off and capturing the mundane. Blinds going up and down, doors opening and closing, footsteps on various surfaces – everything can come in useful, and it is worth having the widest variety of sounds available in your library. Even sounds that you don’t think you will need can come in handy, and you never know what sounds a story might call for, so it is worth capturing as many sounds as you can.

Another thing to keep in mind is to record objects in action. For example, don’t just record a saw being turned on, record it cutting wood. Recording objects in action makes them sound more real because the context is correct. Beyond the sounds that objects and everyday things make, it is also useful to capture the general sounds of various environments or doing field recordings. This is where the portability of a field recorder proves extremely useful. Go out and listen to the world around you and capture the plethora of soundscapes available. Record traffic sounds, birds, cityscapes, anything you can think of. Again, you never know which sounds you will be needing, so go ahead and overdo it.

Don’t Be Overly Literal

When adding the sound effects to your mix, be selective. It can be tempting to put in a sound effect for every action, but this overly literal approach will come off as overdone. Many sounds can be implied by the text, so are unnecessary to include. For instance, if someone leaves a room you don’t necessarily need to have the sound of a door closing. But if they leave because of an argument, it could be worthwhile to have the sound of a door slam. Experiment liberally and hear what works and what doesn’t. Sound design is an artform and can take a while to learn, so practice and don’t get discouraged if things don’t work out on your first try. 

Creative Processing

Once you have built your library, you can get further mileage out of your samples by processing them in different ways. Try reversing the sounds, applying various filters, removing the attack, etc. Your DAW will have many effects plugins that you can use to process your samples, and you can maximize your library by having the sounds preprocessed and ready to go for your mixing stages.

Selling Your Sound Effects

If you don’t mind others using the sounds, you can sell your samples through non-exclusive royalty free sites. There are many sites that focus on stock materials that also sell sound effects. Many of these sites allow you to sign up as an affiliate seller and while it won’t make you rich, it will generate some additional income. 


Working with Voice Actors in Podcasting

Aside from great quality content and high-quality audio, voice actors are the next main ingredient in producing an excellent audio fiction podcast. There are tons of amazing voice actors out there, but if you are working on a small budget (or no budget), you may find yourself asking friends to play characters and do narration. Working with inexperienced voice actors requires a little bit of extra work but done correctly you can coax out a great performance and make your podcast sound high budget and professional.

Comfort

Being in front of a microphone can be an intimidating experience. Nervousness can cause all kinds of issues that are undesirable in your recording such as: erratic breathing, fidgety hands, swiveling chairs etc. Because of this, it is worthwhile to treat your voice actors gently and to be encouraging whenever possible. Give them time to breathe and assure them that mistakes are unimportant. The mistakes will all be corrected in the editing stages, so are unimportant during the recording. When a mistake is made, let them know it is ok and have them redo the line starting at the beginning of the sentence. You’ll want to make sure not to have them start in the middle of the sentence because inflections tend to change from one performance to the next. The more comfortable the actor is, the better their performance will be. Let them know they are doing a great job, offer to give them tea or water (the throat gets dry reading), and generally do whatever you can to keep the attitude positive and comfortable. It is also helpful to have multiple lighting sources so that you can vary the brightness based on their needs, and always have a book easel available, so the mics don’t pick up the unwanted sounds of paper rustling. 

Directing

In order to do a good job directing the actors, it is imperative that you become as familiar with the story as possible. Read it many times and make notes as to what inflections should be used where. It is important to gain the best understanding of the story as possible because subtle changes in tonality can alter the meaning of the words. Take detailed notes and share them with the actor as you go through the story. It is also worth letting them take their own notes, as we all use different shorthand to cue ourselves during performance. Try not to micromanage their performance as this will tend to make them nervous and will interfere with the quality of the delivery. 

Mic Technique

A microphone is essentially a type of instrument and it can take time to develop the techniques it requires to capture a great sound and practice solid mic technique. That being said, there are some simple ways to show the voice actor how to perform in front of the mic. Visual cues can be helpful for keeping the actor centered in front of the mic and not moving back and forth too much. Once you get a decent level on their voice give them a visual reference for their distance from the mic, this will aid in keeping them from moving around too much and help ensure that your level remains consistent. When speaking louder, they will also need to back off of the mic a bit, and likewise get a little closer for soft spoken parts and whispering. Always keep an eye on the levels while recording to make sure that the track isn’t peaking or getting too low a signal. 

Dealing With Mistakes

It is inevitable that the voice actor will make some mistakes, mispronounce words, and flub lines. Make sure to let them know that mistakes are ok and will be dealt with in the editing stages. But also make sure to have them redo any lines that you think could be better. It is always better to have too many takes then to have to ask them to come back just to rerecord a few lines. If you do have to do another session to fix mistakes, keep in mind that one performance can vary considerably from another, so make sure to have them deliver the lines with several different inflections, so that you have some choices when it comes to the editing phase.

Editing

The editing stage is where you will edit out all of the mistakes and make the performance sound perfect. Sometimes this will require adjusting the volume of individual lines so that the volume remains consistent throughout the performance. Compressors, gates, and envelope tools are all useful at this stage, but that’s a subject for another article. 


Spatial Dynamics in Podcasting

Sounds take place in space. Not the vacuum of space, of course, but mixing audio is essentially creating a coherent architecture of air molecules.  When mixing your podcast, it is possible to enrich the storytelling with a sense of place, and this can be done through carefully crafting the spatial dynamics of your mix – both with spoken word and the music. With attention paid to detail, it is possible to make the audio environment match the environment of the story being told and when these match, it becomes a more immersive experience for the listener.

Panning – Left and Right

The simplest tool to use for spatial dynamics is panning. Panning is the left to right placement of the audio track in the stereo field. When panning your audio, it is important to keep in mind that not everyone hears in the same way (for instance I am partially deaf in one ear). Still, it can be a powerful tool to differentiate the environments that the audio is taking place in. If you are using a cast reading, sometimes it can be difficult to differentiate between similar voices. By panning one voice to the left and another to the right, it can help separate the voices in space and improve legibility. When panning dialog use a light touch, no more than 5 to 10%. This will give you space between the voices, without pushing so far in one direction that people have a difficult time telling where the characters are in space. Also avoid too much panning in the music, as it can become distracting to the listener.

Up and Down – The 3rd Dimension

While there is no tool for panning up and down it is possible to create the illusion of these directions with high and low frequencies. This can be trickier than panning, but done correctly it can give your mix a three dimensional, real life feel. Low frequencies tend to travel along the ground, so bass will occupy the “down” direction. Think of how a bass drop can give the impression of downward, or falling motion. The same is true in the opposite, high frequencies will feel like they occupy the “up” direction. Through careful balancing of your frequency range you can give a sense of motion throughout these directions. 

Subject Cues and Direction

Another way of creating a sense of vertical space is with subject cues. For instance, if you use a sound effect of a plane it will give the listener the sense that something is taking place above them. A splash in a puddle will give the sense of something taking place below the listener. When working with your sound effects library, take some time thinking about where in space these sounds take place, and use them accordingly with the sense of direction that you would like the listener to experience.

Reverb and Distance

Another aspect of spatial dynamics is distance. The feeling of distance can be achieved using reverb. The more reverb, the further away a sound will feel. But it is worth keeping in mind the environment that the dialog or music is taking place in. If the dialog takes place in a small environment, such as a spaceship, then the reverb time would be minimal, if used at all. But if the scene takes place in a large room, then reverb times would naturally be longer. For the sake of audibility, reverb should be used with a light touch. It is also worth keeping in mind that air scatters high frequencies, so the further away the subject is, the less high frequencies will be present. Many reverbs will add high end to your track, so use your equalizer to adjust the high frequencies until it feels right based on the desired sense of space.

Movement and Timing

Horizontal and vertical movement can enhance your podcast by creating a sense of place, but it is important not to go overboard as movement can alter the listeners sense of timing. The addition of music to spoken word will make the reading feel faster because it is filling in the space between words. For this reason, if you plan on adding music, especially with movement, you will have to slow down on the spoken performance. Bass frequencies will alter the feeling of time more so than high frequencies. 

When out in the real world take a deep listen to how different places sound and alter your perception of the environment. The more you listen and identify what’s going on, the more you will be able to bring these things into your ability to mix and create environments of your own. 

 


Podcast Preparedness – Things to Have Ready to Go

Producing a podcast can sometimes be a fast-paced affair. Some aspects of the work need to be done and ready on a regular basis, while at times opportunities may present themselves that give you little time to prepare. Because of this it is worth having certain promotional items ready to go at all times, and in this article we will cover a few things you can have at hand to help make your job easier and make sure you don’t miss those golden opportunities that may arise.

Promo Spots

A great way to promote your podcast is to swap promo spots with other podcasts. These are generally 15- to 30-second audio advertisements that can be run at the end of, or during, the program. Typically you’ll want to use your intro music and have a brief script about what your podcast is about and where listeners can find you. Keep it short and compelling. It is worth having several of these ready to go at all times. Create a few of different lengths, and write different scripts depending on what type of audience you are hoping to connect with. When possible, reach out to podcasters that cover similar topics and offer an ad swap, it can be both a great way to meet people in your field, and to promote your podcast.

Radio Edits

If you have registered your podcast with PRX or hosted with Radio4All.net, there is a chance that your show could be picked up for rotation on radio stations. If your podcast contains swearing or adult content always bounce down a secondary “radio edit” mix with the cussing beeped out, so that it follows FCC guidelines. If you have radio edits ready to go it will save you time if a radio station is interested and you’ll be able to hand over the files without additional work. You may also be asked to provide a “bumper” or station ID, so be prepared to create one. A station ID will usually consist of a 10- to 15-second sound bite saying something along the lines of “Hi this is ‘Your Name’, from ‘Your Show’ program, and you’re listening to ‘Call Sign FM’.” Again, keep it short and sweet.

Tags List

When uploading your episodes, it is important to add as many relevant tags as possible so that listeners have an easier time finding your podcast when they are searching for the subject material that they enjoy. Adding tags can be tedious and it can sometimes be challenging to come up with a list of both general and specific tags that might bring a listener to your podcast. Because this step can be dull and time consuming it is worth creating a document file with a list of your tags, that way you can just copy and paste a large list of them instead of brainstorming a new list each episode. Make sure that your tags are separated with commas and add new tags to the list every time you think of one. Don’t forget to add things like recording date, guest’s names, genres, etc. 

Promo Images

Having an eye-catching logo is essential. Make sure that your logo is easy to read at various sizes, and have multiple sizes ready to go at different resolutions in case you are asked to provide artwork. Also make sure to save a file of the art without the wordage, this will come in handy if you need to create a visual ad and it will help keep your brand easily recognizable.

Intro/Outro Music & Instrumentals

Great intro and outro music is a must. If possible, have a musician friend put some effort into this aspect of your podcast, and do your best to get it right, because this will be a huge part of your branding. Listeners like the familiarity of a great intro and will be weary of future changes, so make sure you have something you are willing to live with for a while. It is also important to have instrumental mixes of your intro / outro music ready to go for both promotional reasons and for branding supplemental material. For instance, if you have recorded an online event with a guest which you will be adding to your YouTube channel, add your intro and outro music to the beginning and end of the video. This will help solidify your brand and clue your listeners in to what they can expect from the content. It can also help to unify your various endeavors and make the production sound more professional.


Room Treatment on a Budget

The environment that you record your podcast in is just as important for the quality of your recording as the quality of your equipment and your mixing skills. In this article, will we cover some easy and inexpensive ways to treat the room you work in to improve the sound of your recordings and make your job easier when it comes to mixing.

Room Shape

The shape of your room will drastically affect the way things sound. While it is prohibitively expensive to alter the shape of your room, if you have the option of one room over another it is worth taking several things into account. A room that is a perfect square is the least ideal for recording. The sounds waves will bounce off of the walls and recombine to cancel each other out, or create nodes of build-up. Low ceilings and windows should also be avoided if possible. Corners can also be problematic for bass build-up and should be treated when possible (see Diffusion & Absorption). 

Reflective Surfaces

Surfaces like windows are highly reflective and create unwanted tininess in your recordings. Hard surfaces in general will be quite reflective and should be treated with absorptive materials when possible. Try moving your mic around the room and getting test recordings from different locations to see which sounds best.

Diffusion & Absorption

Diffusion scatters sounds waves and absorptive materials absorbs them or deaden reflections. To dampen reflective surfaces in your room, try putting moving blankets with thumb tacks. They work wonders and are inexpensive. Any blanket will do if you don’t have moving blankets. An expensive alternative is to use a product called Auralex, try looking in dumpsters behind recording and rehearsal studios, as I have often found people throw out Auralex and sound proofing materials when moving. If you are in need of diffusion, a great natural diffusor that you probably already have is a bookshelf full of books. It is worth placing a bookshelf in the corner to avoid bass build-up. If you’re handy with carpentry you may also try your hand at creating a skyline diffusor. These can also be prohibitively expensive but are relatively easy to build using the schematics found here: https://tapeop.com/tutorials/83/diy-diffusors/

Phasing

If you are using more than one microphone to record, phasing can become an issue. Because sound moves at a finite speed, sound from a single source will reach your microphones at different times. When this happens it causes phasing, or certain frequencies to be cancelled. You can move the mics around and try to avoid this by trial and error, or by putting the mics at odd number distances from each other. There is gear available to adjust phasing, but it’s easier and cheaper to handle the situation with good mic placement.

Speaker Placement

If possible, you want to have your monitoring speakers and mixing desk a few feet away from the wall. Doing this will give you a more accurate picture of the sound and a way to make sure that your podcast will sound great on multiple systems and speaker situations. It is also worth checking your mix on a variety of sound systems: headphones / earbuds, and in the car. Every listener will have a different listening environment and it is worth doing some tests to make sure that your podcast sounds good from one system to another. 

Ultimately there is no way to create the perfect recording environment without spending a lot of money, but there is a lot you can do to improve the recording environment and this will show in the quality of your recordings. Many of the expensive items available for studio diffusion and absorption can be built by hand fairly easily if you’re willing to spend the time and a little elbow grease. You don’t need a perfect studio to produce great recordings but taking whatever steps you can to improve the environment will pay off and help your work to sound the best that it can. 


Podcast Promotion – Marketing the Old-School Way

There are thousands of articles out there about how to market a podcast, and the majority of them focus on the same things: social media, websites, mailing lists, etc. These are all great ways of promoting, however most of these articles tend to ignore tried and true, old-school, ways of marketing that can be just as effective, if not more so. Some of the ways of promotion covered in this article can cost a little bit of money, others are free, but hitting your promotion from as many angles as you can is the best way to reach the largest audience possible.

Press Releases

When I first started working in the field of PR the main instrument of the press release was the fax machine. Fortunately those days are over, but the power of the press release has outlived that technology and can now be done via email. Whenever you release a new episode, or reach a milestone it is worth sending out a press release. Focus on your local newspaper, radio station, and small press outlets that deal with your subject material. Pay attention to the copy in these press outlets and emulate the style in your press release. You can also write your press release in the form of an article, and in many cases the local newspaper will run the copy verbatim. Typically the press outlet will want the press release about six weeks before the item you are promoting occurs, but the smaller outlets sometimes need less lead time.

Events

Contact a local bookstore, café, bar, or community center and set up a live event (or do an online zoom event). Some venues will want to charge you, others are happy to lend their space for free or in exchange for help bringing people in. If possible, record your podcast live in front of the audience. This way people get the opportunity to feel involved, and as a bonus you get an episode recorded that is unique and has that great live feel. Events are a wonderful way to meet your audience and to open up a dialog, there’s no better engagement than speaking directly with your listeners.

Radio

Often overlooked these days but still one of the most powerful forms of media is the radio. If your podcast is clean (free from swearing and adult content) then you have a good chance of getting it on the radio. If there is cussing, it’s worth doing radio edits of each episode. Contact your local radio station and ask if they would be interested in running your show. Many small radio stations focus on community and you will often find that they are hungry for new content. Beyond your local radio station you can host your podcast on https://www.prx.org/ and http://www.radio4all.net/ to help connect you with radio stations in other areas. Getting your show on even one radio station can bring you thousands of additional listeners, but it won’t show up in your stats - which is fine because success is qualitative not quantitative.

Business Cards, Fliers, Stickers

Make physical promotional materials to hand out and put up on bulletin boards. Fans are always happy to receive a sticker too and will proudly display them, further helping you get the word out. For the fliers, make small tear-aways at the bottom with a QR code or link, that way they don’t forget to check it out later. Put up your fliers at cafes, libraries, your local book and record stores, or anywhere that allows fliers to be posted. You never know where your next listener will come from and the more ways they can find you the better the chances of gaining their interest.

Word of Mouth

When it comes to promotion nothing works better than actually talking to people. Tell people about what you do (without being pushy) and you’ll often find that they are interested in the subject matter, or have been looking for a new podcast to check out. Follow up your conversations with a business card, so that they remember to look it up. Let them know what platforms your podcast is available on and how they can get involved if possible. Remember that listeners are people just like you and there’s probably a thousand people out there who are wanting material just like you provide, don’t be shy, try to connect with them. And there’s no better feeling than finding out that they might already be a fan of your show.

Lastly, keep in mind that it can sometimes take years to develop a large and loyal audience. Stick with it, don’t give up, and be persistent – the right audience will eventually find you if you let them know that you exist.


Freeware Solutions for Building Your Podcasting Studio

Starting your first podcast can be daunting. Perusing microphones and equipment, while fun, can be disheartening as the cost quickly becomes prohibitive. But one need not get discouraged, as it is possible to get started with a very small (or no) budget. Many of the things you will need can be obtained for free and in this article we’ll show you where to find the tools you need. 

When it comes to microphones you can be looking at spending anywhere from 10s of dollars to 1000s, but the cell phone in your pocket already has a pretty decent mic built-in, and it’s good enough to get you started. Most cell phones will also have a built-in recording app, and there are plenty you can download for free. If using these go into the settings and make sure to set the sample rate and bit depth as high as possible.

Once you have made your recording it’s time to edit the recording into the beautiful finished product that will be your podcast. Fortunately from here on out everything you’ll be needing can be downloaded for free, and many of the tools we’ll be discussing are powerful and versatile. 

DIGITAL AUDIO WORKSTATIONS aka DAW

Digital Audio Workstations are where all of your editing will take place (they can do much more than this, but that is for a later article). You’ve probably heard of DAWs such as Protools or Logic. These programs are great and if you can afford them you’re in business. However, there are several freeware DAWs that will do the trick just fine. 

Audacity is a robust freeware DAW that is a perfect place to begin and will serve most of your needs. It also has the advantage of being easy to learn, and while outside the scope of this article there are a wealth of tutorials and articles about using this powerful software. I recommend reading the manual before getting started (as with all DAWs) and if you really want to do a deep dive it is also possible to learn Nyquist (programming language) and write your own plugins. 

Audacity can be downloaded for free here: https://www.audacityteam.org/

(Note: While Audacity has been stable and safe for many years, recently some security issues have raised concerns with the latest version, older versions should be fine - find our more here https://www.ghacks.net/2021/07/04/audacity-controversy-continues-with-newly-published-privacy-notice/)

Reaper is another great DAW that can be downloaded for a free 60 day evaluation. Reaper serves many of the same functions as Audacity with the added advantage that it is also capable of MIDI. If you plan on making music for your podcast Reaper is a great option because of the MIDI function. If you happen to code in Python - Reaper is also capable of integration and you can code and customize your own software.

The Reaper trial can be downloaded for free here: https://www.reaper.fm/download.php

PLUGINS and other tools

Once you learn the ropes of your DAW you will probably want to use audio effects plugins to help shape and clean up the sound your recordings. Audacity comes with a great suite of effects plugins and generators (mainly used for synthesis). Beyond the ones that come built-in with the program an additional bundle of plugins can be downloaded here: https://www.audacityteam.org/download/plug-ins/

Another particularly useful tool for cleaning up vocal recordings is the Spitfish de-esser from Digital Fish Phones. De-essers help eliminate sibilance, lispiness, and smakiness – all of which can improve the quality of your recording.  The same company also makes a freeware compressor and gate which you may find useful. You can download all of them here: http://www.digitalfishphones.com/main.php?item=2&subItem=5

If you are looking for more free audio tools check out http://www.dontcrack.com/ for all kinds of software that you may find useful, from effects plugins to virtual instruments. 

HOSTING

Once you’ve recorded and edited your podcast it’s time to release it into the world. There are a variety of hosting platforms, many of which have monthly fees. To get started for free http://www.radio4all.net/ is a perfect solution, however this site will not connect you to podcast directories such as itunes, googleplay etc. Despite this downfall it is still worth hosting your podcast on this platform, as the more places your podcast is available the more potential listeners will find you.

Podomatic has a free plan to get you started and can connect you with the most popular podcast directories. It is worthwhile to go through the process of setting these up as the majority of your listens will occur through the directories. This last step can be a bit tricky at first but is essential to getting your podcast to the widest possible audience. https://www.podomatic.com

Eventually, if you stick with podcasting you’ll probably want to upgrade your studio. But don’t let lack of funds stop you from creating your first show. The above mentioned tools are all free and are more than enough to get you started.